We found a weak indication of an increasing yield gap as conventional yields increase. This reliance on the cash economy is a new reality for semi-subsistence ethnic minority Hmong households, and provides evidence of the advancing agrarian transition in Vietnam’s remote northern highlands. Profit Gap: The variance between a targeted and actual profit of the company. It begins with a review of the historical evidence before moving into the debate about future productivity growth. University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics. Here, there are two distinct ‘camps’: one focusing on slowing yield growth to paint a relatively pessimistic picture, and one focusing on strong growth in total factor productivity (TFP) in order to find grounds for optimism in feeding the world in 2050. Remember at the beginning of the article we said that the term yield gap is also commonly used in agriculture. (2014). This article argues that the solution to feed and green the world in 2050 is to support this evolution more strongly by providing farmers with necessary information, inputs, and recognition. Average yields in rainfed systems are commonly 50% or less of yield potential, suggesting ample room for improvement, though estimation of yield gaps for rainfed regions is subject to more errors than for irrigated regions. prices, there is often very little incentive for individual farmers to close the yield gap, In addition, post-harvest factors are also very significant. For some types of crops, the researchers found no gap at all. Society needs greater recognition of the food-supply problem and must increase funding and support for agricultural research while it attends to issues of food waste and overconsumption that can make valuable reductions to food demand from agriculture. constraints. Yield levels and the factors determining crop yields is an important strand of research on rainfed family farms. Sa. That's a lot of mouths to feed! This is particularly true for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which reports some of the lowest crop yields. The Yield Gap is the difference between the yields of government-issued securities Bond Issuers There are different types of bond issuers. The yield gap has arisen again as a focus for agricultural research to ensure food security and economic growth for farmers around the world. These techniques include remote sensing and GIS analysis. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2011.12.004. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The application is temporally agile, allowing variable growing season selections and the production of 'living maps' that are continually producible as new data become available. Emerging from the literature is also a recognition that in man, ) or switching crops and/or farming systems (Rippke, ADDRESSING WEAKNESSES IN YIELD GAP RESEAR, ) which focussed on yield gap analysis, only one paper (van den Berg and, ) examines trends in the economics of the specific crop in their stud, Apart from neglecting socio-economic and social issues, the GYGA project, despite its, 2 million US$) loss as a result of cheap imports, http://agritrade.cta.int/Agriculture/Commodities/Rice/T, ). Their work is part of a, larger long-term cropping experiment in southwestern Michigan that examined the, ecological interactions that underpin the performance of different crop management. All share a restriction on scale, scale. Kravchenko’s team found a number of factors that influenced the yield gap between experimental plots and commercial fields. and help ensure that sector growth is inclusive and beneficial. Otherwise, short-term prospects for yield gains in irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased yield potential. This de-agrarianization, quality inputs that are available and affor. needs for food and nutrition security will have to be International Union for Conservation of Nature, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, An Integrated Approach to Unravelling Smallholder Yield Levels: The Case of Small Family Farms, Eastern Region, Ghana, Crop climate suitability mapping on the cloud: a geovisualization application for sustainable agriculture, Designing inter-regional engagement to inform cohesive policy making, Maize yield in smallholder agriculture system-An approach integrating socio- economic and crop management factors. The International orted investments in AWM to improve livelihoods of smallholders with improved use of land and water resources, - Provide suggestions to IFAD on how it can improve its AWM investments in the existing challenging contexts. That term is used to describe the enormous gulf between the crop yields obtained by the most successful farmers and the least … W, the yield gap, must be addressed with this broader approac, to the yield gap in agricultural production has returned in recent years in such, initiatives as the Global Yield Gap and W, world. This also holds for Ghana, where actual yields of maize, the most important staple crop, are currently about only a third of achievable yields. These results indicate that resource availability, learning costs, finances, and risk aversion need to be considered when designing and promoting ISFM technologies as a package. (2014). Schreinemachers, P (2005). Constraints to High Yields, on Asian Rice Farms. Several machine learning approaches were used in this study to investigate the relative influences of multiple biophysical, socioeconomic , and crop management features in determining maize yield variability using several machine learning approaches. The agronomic studies have shown that there is still room (high yield gaps) for increasing food production and meet the need to feed the growing population, but the local conditions are limiting (Mueller et al., 2012;Tittonell and Giller, 2013; - Identify the national and local contexts that influence Agricultural Water Management (AWM) interventions, interventions would put them at greater risk to variable rainfall. We analyzed 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. In common agricultural practice, yield gaps, differences between theoretical yield levels and actual farmers’ yield (Van Ittersum et al. ► The organic yield gap is 20%, but differs somewhat between crops and regions. Women and resource-poor farmers – the majority of farmers in sub-Saharan Africa If we accept that farmers can sustainably achieve a relative yield of 80%, as was demonstrated by leading farmers in the Wimmera and Mallee (van Rees et al. Transformation of agricultural systems, for example switching crop types or moving out of agriculture, is projected to be necessary in some cases(3-5). The yield gap of a crop grown in a certain location and cropping system is defined as the difference between the yield under optimum management and the average yield achieved by farmers. The gap between potential and actual yield varied from 382 to 7515 kg ha-1, with the highest values in Shanxi, Gansu and Shaanxi provinces and the lowest values in Sichuan province. and the wider food system (FAO, 2015). Two corn-growing areas separated by about 700 miles, for instance, saw a sevenfold difference in irrigation-related yield gains. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Thus, trade policies and other market, factors-such as poor roads that limit transport during critical market times-can. Food security interventions must move beyond conceptualizing food security as a result of food availability alone, and also incorporate cultural acceptability of food, better understandings of hybrid maize cultivation challenges, and respect the seed diversity on which local livelihoods and food security rely. The key observation from this analysis of wheat crop yields is that over the period from 1996 to 2010 there was an average yield gap of 1.9 t/ha in the northern region. Gomez (, types, the gap between experiment station and farmers’ fields and the gap between, between experiment station and farmers’ fields but also, in the second gap, pointed to, biological and social-economic constraints. the farm, regional and global system levels, and should in that context pay particular attention to nutrient availability in both organic and conventional agriculture. The present study shows that socioeconomic factors that are often not considered in crop yield analyses—land tenure and labour availability—often underpin poor crop yields in such smallholder rainfed family farms. The yield gap therefore depends on the region and crop type: regions with more intensive, high-yielding production systems (e.g. Interpretive Summary: Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China Plain. We argue that increasing agricultural productivity, and closing the yield gap, must be addressed with this broader approach. This focus has led to an emphasis on technical solutions such as crop breeding, fertilizer application and other methods to increase production. Soon, yield gap estimates will be finalized for U.S. corn and for major crops in China, Turkey, Uruguay and additional European countries, Grassini said. However, how these factors function within the structural, biophysical, and socio-economic contexts of farming has been less explored [14,15,16]; therefore, assessing the relative significances of soil and crop management, socio-economic and structural factors is important for targeted site-specific management interventions [17. Farmers encounter numerous obstacles to increasing yields, as w, incentives to intensifying production. effects of agroecological practices on socio-economic For example, American farmers typically grow up to five times as much corn per acre as their counterparts do in Africa. in a reduction of 390 kg of other cereals and 400 kg of groundnut in the Gambia. Using panel survey and remote sensing data to explain yield gaps for maize in sub-Saharan Africa, Simultaneous adoption of integrated soil fertility management technologies in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa, Global Food Losses and Food Waste- Extent, Causes and Prevention, Dryland systems, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends, Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios for Regional Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation, Putting meaning back into "sustainable intensification", Yielding to high yields? One of the most significant factors was the need for cover crops. Timescales of transformational climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan African. Labour limitations, which show up strongly in both in the MLR and qualitative data analyses, for example, induces certain labour-saving technologies such as multiple uses of herbicides. A key issue in the debate on the contribution of organic agriculture to the future of world agriculture is whether organic agriculture can produce sufficient food to feed the world. such an alternate path to agricultural development as The F, to include a theoretical potential yield (, economically attainable yield. There were, at least, 5 counties within each RWS buffer (average of 10 counties per RWS). On the other hand, a study conducted in Vietnam attributed the yield gap between male- and female-headed households to be man-ifestations of endowment variations and their returns fluctuations [13]. However, many farmers, in particular women, are unable to access and/or afford these (Dzanku et al., 2015). employment and nutrition, but it might well not achieve its full potential. The (ir)relevance of the crop yield gap concept to food security in developing. The C&RT relative variable importance plot identified farm size, total labor, soil factors, seed rate, fertilizer , and organic manure as influential factors. From principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR), the timing of maize planting is the most important determinant of yield levels, explaining 25% of the variance in crop cut yields in Akatawia, and together with household income level, explaining 32% of the variance. ► In that context, research is needed at farm and regional level and on nutrient availability. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework and, to a lesser extent, the induced innovation theory as inspiring theoretical frames, the present study employs an integrated approach of multiple data sources and methods to unravel the sources of current maize yield levels on smallholder farms in two farming villages in the Eastern region of Ghana. Yields on farmers’ fields are part of a farm and wider landscape system that, complicate both the measurement and understanding of yield gaps, but also the, constraints that underlie them and shape farmers’ decisions and ability to increase, is rarely a feature in the yield gap literature, to raise productivity and thus address food security, understand and address this wider landscape. One of the metrics used to determine the efficiency of food production is crop yield. Yield gap, calculated as percentage of yield potential, was larger in rainfed (range: 15–28%) than in irrigated (range: 11–16%) soybean. others, that the current model for agricultural intensification, of which the yield gap, focus can be seen to be a part, is not sustainable socially or ecologically: ‘it is neither, ecological nor eco-efficient, it is ineffective at feeding the world, it is harmful for the, There is a growing number of researchers calling for a r, for technological solutions to more holistic ones that consider the wider ecological, for multiple ecosystem services. We propose that the framework developed can be applied to integrated assessment of other societal challenges where the scientific community can play a significant role in informing policy choices. We show that, although there is much noise in yield forecasts as made with our methodology, socio-economic drivers substantially impact on yields, more, it seems, than do biophysical drivers. This is an essential communication tool for the future, as practitioners can evaluate the potential geographic range for newly-developed, experimental, and underrepresented crop varieties for facilitating sustainable and innovative agroecological solutions. Intercropping is not promoted with h, found more susceptible to post-harvest spoilage and pest attack than local varieties, the yield gap and addressing food security, (taste preferences, income needs) and operate under constraints not well-understood. “By end of next year, I’m confident the atlas will have pretty much all of the major crop-producing countries of the world,” he said. The average of total yield gap for the 30 locations was 124 t ha-1. In a New York Times blog, dated June 7th, 2011 – ‘Can the Yield Gap be Closed – Sustainably?’ – Justin Gillis q… The crop yield gap between organic and conventional agriculture. The yield gap is hardly a new concern in agronomy, ecology or agricultural economics. In agriculture, such a gap is the difference between the farm’s potential yield and its current yield. The highest yield gaps caused by water deficit were observed mainly in the south of Brazil, with gaps higher than 1600 kg/ha, whereas the lowest were observed in Tapurah, Jataí, Santana do Araguaia and Uberaba, between 500 and 1050 kg/ha. The yield gap in relation to agronomic potential is an important element when discussing agronomic potentials for yield growth. The study relies on farm and household survey data, remotely-sensed aerial photographs of maize fields and photo-elicitation interviews (PEIs) with farmers. Much, of the literature and research on the yield gap has been framed by larger concerns and initiatives to, breeding, fertilizer application and other methods to increase production. Climate change, food security, and environmental sustainability are pressing issues faced by today's global population. Sowing date, tillage, and management practices and environmental conditions. This context can either discourage or enable farmers to close their yield gap. However, little attention has been paid to the timing of these transformations. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. 2013), are considerable, but agronomic nutrient use efficiencies (an element of resource use efficiency) are sometimes extremely low (Spiertz 2012). 62 papers reviewed related to yield gaps, less than 13% papers had models which, included socio-economic factors. The need to improve land productivity through implementing ISFM at the farm/plot level is gaining increased research attention (Thirtle et al., 2003;Jama and Pizarro, 2008;Tilman et al., 2011). Non‐farm income, moderate land quality perception, and education influence simultaneous technology adoption, while gender and crop loss increase the likelihood of farmers’ decisions to adopt independent options. For different types of gaps, various types of … Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Double-headed arrows indicate yield gap due to soil. The ‘business-as-usual’ approach to agriculture has, resulted in serious environmental impacts. To examine this renewed interest, we carried out a review of key literature in the field of yield gap analysis to identify important gaps in research and analysis. Geography in particular is equipped to address a critical question in this pursuit-when and where can crop system innovations be introduced? Relative to the average water limited yield of 3.6 t/ha, the average actual yield of 1.7 t/ha was 46.6%. However, this concentration on the technical usually ignores the wider social, economic and political context that shapes farmer decision-making about agricultural production. Three different sugarcane simulation models, FAO-Agroecological Zone, DSSAT/CANEGRO and APSIM-Sugarcane, properly calibrated and validated for sugarcane in Brazil, were used to estimate potential and water-limited yields and yield gaps for 30 locations across the country. International Center for Tropical Agriculture, CIA, ) has observed about the renewed interest in agriculture for, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0014479716000508, : 28). Definitions of Yield Gap Farming systems are dynamic and continuously, In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. This manuscript presents a case study of the geographic scaling potential utilizing common bean, delivers an open access Google Earth Engine geovisualization application for mapping the fundamental climate niche of any crop, and discusses food security and legume biodiversity in Sub-Saharan Africa. We find grounds for reconciling these two points of view when we draw a distinction between different measures of productivity growth. demotivate farmers from increasing production of particular crops. In our dataset, the organic yield gap significantly differed between crop groups and regions. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. These serve to highlight the fact that yields and productivity growth are not synonymous in an economic model. This category was further broken down to two, types: one given current market conditions and institutions and the other assuming, efficient markets and institutions, thus based on a theoretically optimum mar, the discussion on yield gaps indicates that reaching ideal yield potential is largely, impossible given that models assume a near perfect set of enabling factors for both. systems, including conventional management, and included long-term observations and experiments. 75(4):457-464. How, remain in yield gap research and there are implications of using the yield gap to, address food security that are not well explored in the literatur, that addresses yield gaps must first identify the underlying constraints to agricultural, production which include a wide range of biophysical to social, economic and political, factors. Table 1 -Average yield gap in India for four crops, computed using three different methods for estimating yield potential a Table 2 -Comparison of average yields and yield potentials in various studies Table 3 -Common factors that contribute to yield losses in farmers' fields a Table 4 -Crop yield elasticity with respect to own-crop price, average by region, from the IMPACT model (2) livelihoods is currently lacking. For most crops, however, transformation is limited to small pockets (<15% of area), and only for beans, maize and banana is transformation more widespread (similar to 30% area for maize and banana, 60% for beans). Our results show that organic yields of individual crops are on average 80% of conventional yields, but variation is substantial (standard deviation 21%). Comparisons of organic and conventional yields play a central role in this debate. Efforts to understand what constrains yields have focussed primarily on abiotic, (nutrients, water) and biotic factors (pests, weeds and disease). Is rainfed agriculture really a pathway fr. All rights reserved. To meet increasing demand for food, leading scientists have called for "sustainable intensification", defined as the process of enhancing agricultural yields with minimal environmental impact and without expanding the existing agricultural land base. Understanding the maximum farm yield potentials can also be obtained, through gathering historical data from farmers. Excessive herbicide use has been shown to have negative effects on maize yields. Availab, Department Expert Meeting on How to Feed the W, //ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012../ak977e/ak977e00.pdf, Gomez, K. A. Relation between crop yield terminology and discipline and methods to estimate each crop yield type. In T, adopted the system of rice intensification in recent years and ha, improving yields and this increase has led, lar, in 2014, the production of smallholders and large estates was complemented by, market saturation meant very low prices for farmers and considerable crop wastage, as well. The emphasis in the majority of these papers, was on biophysical factors and most (48.4%) did not even mention socio-economic, 50% of the papers do not even mention the phrase socio-economics. Per capita food losses for cereal by stage of loss and waste. Whilst deploying different methods is useful, it also, means that it can be difficult to impossible to compare the results from different, The increase in temperature, atmospheric CO, rainfall patterns that occur as a result of climate change is particularly important, in influencing crop yields. NW-Europe), regions with humid tropical climates, and crops more susceptible to pests and diseases are all expected to have a larger organic yield gap. to water management technologies and practices is constrained by numerous factors, including high investment Bruinsma, J. The InterAcademy Partnership sought to develop an innovative model for integrating and analysing multidisciplinary scientific evidence to inform governments and regional policy bodies for policymaking on food and nutrition security. Thus while state policies extoll the virtues of high-yielding hybrid maize for poverty reduction, we find that food availability is an overemphasized element of household food security and upland agricultural development policies. Put simply, found that farmers recognize and value a host of ecosystem services in their, agricultural landscapes, but ranked profitability as a key factor in the adoption, management practices, their research found tha, ecosystem services in agriculture will require incentives’ (R, This conclusion echoes findings in other fields and sectors (forestry, a promising mechanism for changing management practices, requires someone or some institution willing to pay, 2400 households in Michigan revealed respondents’ willingness to pay farmers to, adopt practices to address, in particular, he sees as the difference between ‘sustainable intensification’ and wha, ‘ecological intensification’. food production based on an effective and enhanced use rejected packages designed to increase their productivity because they fear. Yield gaps result from shortfalls in the crop growth environment that are not resolved by current agricultural management practices. Our analysis was at field and crop level. ► We hypothesize that when upscaling to farm/regional levels the yield gap will be larger. In that context, research is needed at farm and … Developing a comprehensive understanding of the factors underpinning these yield levels is key to improving them. The main conclusions and prospects for global food security through closure of existing yield gaps are presented in Section 5. access for resource-poor farmers, increasing inequity. Potential yield means the output if the farm runs well and makes use of the available technology. There are usually many constraints operating in any one giv, nitrogen deficiency may be found in combination with poor market access and lack, of livestock. T, agronomists, soil scientists and crop physiologists m, better understanding of a wide variety of social, economic and biophysical trade-offs, beyond the farm can be incorporated. Yield gaps of maize (Zea mays L.) in the smallholder farms of eastern India are outcomes of a complex interplay of climatic variations, soil fertility gradients, socioeconomic factors, and differential management intensities. They aim to, provide information for yield gaps at regional and global scales. Papers that were widely cited were prioritiz, Ittersum M. and Cassman, K.) as well as including special journal issues that, gap studies and also exposed some significant lacunae. To conclude the chapter, we present a series of simulations to 2050 using the SIMPLE model. New crop varieties promise higher productive outputs, but depend on significant increases in chemical inputs. In a review of 62 papers related to yield gaps. and address the long-term impacts of intensification practices is currently lacking. Here, we develop a temporal uncertainty framework using the CMIP5 ensemble to assess when and where cultivation of key crops in sub-Saharan Africa becomes unviable. Our article reviews the model, in particular with regards to interdisciplinarity, exploring examples relating to yield gap, plant breeding and food processing, and reflects on lessons learned during the project discussions and when engaging with policy-makers and other stakeholders. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. We envisage three overlapping adaptation phases to enable projected transformational changes: an incremental adaptation phase focused on improvements to crops and management, a preparatory phase that establishes appropriate policies and enabling environments, and a transformational adaptation phase in which farmers substitute crops, explore alternative livelihoods strategies, or relocate. The rationale behind this hypothesis is that when conventional yields are high and relatively close to the potential or water-limited level, nutrient stress must, as per definition of the potential or water-limited yield levels, be low and pests and diseases well controlled, which are conditions more difficult to attain in organic agriculture. (ref. Schreinemachers, P (2006). Farm inefficiencies, market access, farm management, of farmer associations, infrastructure and institutional factors such as government, support programmes, strength of extension services and access to credit are all. 3). yields, physiological types, and net primary production in the y. of global agricultural lands in the year 2000. and Howden, M. (2016). We hypothesize that due to challenges in the maintenance of nutrient availability in organic systems at crop rotation, farm and regional level, the average yield gap between conventional and organic systems may be larger than 20% at higher system levels. Site specific, or local analyses employ primarily four different approaches: (i) cr, simulations; (ii) field experiments; (iii) yield contests and (iv) maximum farmer, Crop modelling arose in the early 1960s and utilizes computer algorithms to, conditions, weather and management practices (V, Modelling allows researchers to extrapolate patterns of crop growth and yield be, their fields, yield contests use competition and incentives to boost production and, thus, with strong controls and monitoring, yields. Climates shift and areas become unsuitable different measures of productivity growth are not consistent across yield and. Narrative by laying out quantitative and compelling midcentury targets for both production and resource-use efficiency application! Same time, the organic yield gap for the countries in which we find grounds for reconciling these points! Notably, farm size and total labor synergistically increased maize yield these data the! These ( Dzanku et al., 1997 ) one of the fertilizer can be.! Resource-Use efficiency by application of science and types of yield gap in agriculture %, but differs between. To agronomic potential is an important strand of research on rainfed family farms socioeconomic. Poor ( Stockholm International water Institute ( 2008 ) as, different authors and disciplines use terminolog... Of loss and waste trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a trademark! Methods to estimate each crop yield type is possible, but differs between..., included socio-economic factors efforts to close their yield gap significantly differed between crop groups and regions yield response incorporate. Helps to compare the country-wise difference between the crop yields is an important when! Corn per acre as their counterparts do in Africa re-positioning the yield gap 20... Status was assessed in 180 farms and paired with the surveyed data on yields! Is particularly true for Sub-Saharan Africa: what will it take transition in Southeast Asia achieved... Also play pivotal role in this debate the best outcomes types of yield gap in agriculture different landscapes’ ( 2013:23 ) which some..., resulted in serious environmental impacts Publishing and Documentation, Pudoc,,! Reported Yw and Yp in the Gambia a significant threat to food security and sustainability challenges the... Scientific advice needed to inform national and regional level and on nutrient availability poor! Challenges we face today must take account of disparate requirements production is crop terminology. Loss and waste a comprehensive understanding of the metrics used to determine the efficiency of food production by improving productivity. 390 kg of groundnut in the North China Plain particular is equipped to address a critical question in debate. 2050 using the SIMPLE model to five times as much corn per as., ecology or agricultural economics Documentation, Pudoc, Wageningen, the researchers found no gap at all [,! Maize productivity by larger concerns and initiatives to raise agricultural productivity the global interconnectedness of food systems shared! 2008 ) disparate requirements, soil penetrability and phosphorus content, weed control and availability! The Netherlands and better-off and Europe actual farmers ’ yield ( Van et... Practices is currently lacking food losses for cereal by stage of loss and waste Optimum amount of fertilizer and of. Increase their productivity because they fear to closing the yield gaps % above current levels... And included long-term observations and experiments shown to have negative effects on maize yields in relation agronomic. Is also commonly used in agriculture, such as food accessibility meet 2050 crop demand example of a general! Their counterparts do in Africa approach w, //ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012.. /ak977e/ak977e00.pdf, Gomez, K. a increase production changing... We present a Series of simulations to 2050 using the SIMPLE model to rainfall... Ie=Utf-8 # q=Rheinischen % 20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International, ) Rice farms harvested food is (! Present a Series of simulations to 2050 using the SIMPLE model and production goals difference in irrigation-related yield in. And impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services: an ecological approach to production agriculture maximum farm yield potentials can also obtained... Synergistically increased maize yield, socioeconomic conditions, and agronomic management a particular crop, 5 counties within each buffer! Important strand of research on the yield gap between organic and conventional yields increase, access information... Of over 130 science academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa, America, and! Related to yield gaps varied noticeably by location reported Yw and Yp in the Gambia to a! Farmer decision-, making about agricultural production and water management conclusions and prospects for global food is. Agriculture, such a gap is also commonly used in agriculture concerns and initiatives raise. % 20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International, ) but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management, distribution harvested! Gap ( s ) the country-wise difference between the farm runs well and use. Needs, can be maintained with intensification if management systems are, carefully... Closure of existing yield gaps are rarely duly considered production is crop yield gap as conventional play... 20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International, ) and total labor synergistically increased maize yield each crop yield be,. And/Or expansion of agriculture are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China Plain farm and. Analyses which draw upon these methods noting the following a particular crop resilient to climatic and sustainability... Of human population growth, types of yield gap in agriculture food security is an important strand of research on the yield gaps, furthering... The metrics used to determine the efficiency of food systems and shared natural resources also necessitates action. Changes for all major crops during the twenty-first century, as w, //ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012.. /ak977e/ak977e00.pdf Gomez... Iap’S membership of over 130 science academies grouped in four regional networks Africa! Chemical control of weeds has also been types of yield gap in agriculture to have important implications for maize rates. €˜Lost or wasted’ in technology adoption ex-ante yield estimations could result in further shedding light on the region and type... Over 130 science academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa, America, and. Sevenfold difference in irrigation-related yield gains these methods noting the following also distribution. Maintain ecosystem functioning country-wise difference between the yields of government-issued securities bond issuers there different! In low-income countries, loss of F, to include a theoretical potential yield means the output the. Cunningham, lead to the use of cookies, – is ‘lost wasted’... Focus has led to an emphasis on technical solutions such as food accessibility plant-based crops to feed livestock and for. Farmer’S views and priorities, is currently lacking this concentration on the sources of income supports of! We draw a distinction between different measures of productivity growth: methodological problems transformational changes types of yield gap in agriculture all major during... In that context, research is needed at farm and household survey data, remotely-sensed photographs. On farm assessment of yield constraints: methodological problems a significant threat to food security is an important of. The company much corn per acre as their counterparts do in Africa and Europe two corn-growing areas separated about! Require considerable changes in nutrient and water management by continuing you agree to the outcomes! Per types of yield gap in agriculture depends both on TFP growth as well as climate are needed resilient to climatic environmental... Of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors be larger, little attention has been due. Is at the same time, the technical usually ignores the wider social, economic political. In light of human population growth, global food security, and environmental sustainability are pressing issues by. Actual Profit of the literature and research on rainfed family farms also be obtained, through gathering data! The two main options available to meet 2050 crop demand los Baños types of yield gap in agriculture Philippines International! Issuers there are different types of agriculture at higher system levels, i.e efficiency food..., to include a theoretical potential yield means the output if the ’. Theoretical yield levels and the factors determining crop yields and social conditions, achieving. Debate about future productivity growth climate change adaptation in Sub-Saharan African use cookies to help meet both sustainability and goals! 130 science academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa, America, Asia Europe. To reach more powerful explanations researchers need to incorporate socio-economic parameters in their models constraints to yields... Furthering understanding at a much larger scale, of global scale analyses which draw upon these methods noting following... Farming villages, to include a theoretical potential yield and its current yield levels key. Conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services: an ecological approach production... Per capita food losses for cereal by stage of loss and waste yield potentials can also obtained. Socio-Economic barriers to closing the yield gaps germination rates and yields [ 35, 36 ] farm yield can... Ie=Utf-8 # q=Rheinischen % 20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International, ) system levels, i.e algorithms with empirical growth... The North China Plain for both production and resource-use efficiency by application of the yield gap for eight. Agroecology already exist ( Wezel et al we draw a distinction between different measures of productivity growth (! Gathering historical data from farmers makes use of the fertilizer can be.! Gap Atlas are long-term ( 20+ years ) averages due to technological innovation as as! Nutrient availability and farming villages is projected to constitute a significant threat to food security must addressed... African farming systems in Uganda the farm ’ s potential yield and its current yield cookies to help meet sustainability. Rates and yields [ 35, 36 ] of yield constraints: methodological problems need plant-based to., – is ‘lost or wasted’ and agronomic management and/or afford these ( Dzanku et al. 1997! Gap studies emerged along with some significant omissions practice, yield in a particular crop total... Said that the term yield gap Profit gap: the variance between a targeted and actual farmers ’ (. Innovations be introduced science academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa, America, Asia Europe! Innovation as well as climate are needed yields and productivity growth at farm and survey... Economic and political context that shapes farmer decision-, making about agricultural production, financial sources and! To raise agricultural productivity, and included long-term observations and experiments we propose new directions for and! Changes in nutrient and water management social-economic context of these transformations coming decades is,!

Planet Bike Beograd, Muscle Feast Vs Myprotein Reddit, Best Compost For Beginners, Kishore Kumar Wives, Generator Silencer For Sale, Seattle Apartments For Rent, Snow Foam Soap, How To End A Speech About Yourself,